Bladder outlet obstruction is not as commonly seen in females as in males. The usual causes are Postmenopausal urethral stenosis, severe cystocele leading to kinking of bladder neck, urethral mucosal prolapse, post hysterectomy status, urethral caruncle, urethral carcinoma and other neoplastic conditions in the adjacent organs.
Uroflowmetry is a good screening test for BOO in both males and females. A recent study conducted by Dr Barapatreetal on in healthy women suggested the normal Bladder Voided volumes to be around 290 ml +/- 160 ml and Qmax Around 23.06 ml/s +/- 9.4 ml/s.
One of the uroflowmetry showing severe BOO in a female presenting with Recurrent UTI is displayed below.